30 March 2011
Last Updated on 30 March 2011
There are currently no standard examination positions for pronation and supination. During these movements the shooulder is difficult to fully stabilize without using 90 degrees of shooulder abduction and even then the subject can move the shooulder somewhat the elbow is usually flexed to 90 degrees during these tests (as described by Gallager et al 1997).
If isolated from the wrist and elbow the forearm has one degree of freedom. This is longitudinal through the two bones controlled by the superior and inferior raio/ulna joints. This motion allows radius to rotate moving the attached hand into the palm down (pronation) and palm up (supination positions.
These movements can be performed in either the lying, seated (most popular position), or standing positions. Most movements around the forearm in everyday life, and in fact sport, occur with the hand free in space (open chain) and with the elbow bent.
Supination of the forearm has been extensively studied in patient populations with biceps tendon problems. Supination is often investigated at the same time as elbow flexion the two are co-dependant.